Sri Lanka joined five penalty strokes in the third session of the second day in Pallekele, following a bizarre interpretation of the law governing the referee's deliberate short races.
Here's what happened:
Roshen Silva was batting along with Akila Dananjaya, when Roshen eliminated the Jack Leach fine from Moeen Ali to the third man.
Although there were two easy to take, both batters assumed that the ball would reach the limit and went to the other end, while they watched Moeen chase the ball down.
However, Moeen caught the slowing ball, and rolled it a few inches below the limit, sliding along the ground and collecting the ball back into play.
Realizing that four had been prevented, the batters, who had crossed and were now at opposite ends of the field, decided to cross back, just walking as they did, because Moeen's momentum had taken him over the border line, and it was not in fire position in a quick launch back.
Dananjaya, by the way, crushed his bat at the end of the front and returned to the second in the usual way.
Where the referees faced the hitters, however, was when Roshen did it. He did not crush his bat at the end of the non-forwards. He had been watching the ball and Moeen, and apparently had neglected to make sure he had completed the race.
This is where the five penalty races come in. Law 18.5.1 establishes that:
"If either of the two referees considers that one or both batters fell short at the end of that referee, the referee in question shall, when the ball is dead, call and point to Short race and inform the other referee of what has happened and apply [five penalty runs]. "  The main reason for deliberately running a short race – that is to cross in the middle of the field, then cross backwards without touching the ground , is to ensure that the main hitter in the association maintains the strike, perhaps in a situation where the hitters realize that it is not possible to complete two races in full.  Here, however, Roshen was so close to the non-strikers when Moeen stopped the ball, that he could virtually reach and hit his bat. The fact that he did not seem more the result of carelessness on his part, perhaps he thought he had already completed the first race. In any case, there was no pressure to return for the second. The batters ran it and returned to their original wrinkles with enough time.
It is also important to keep in mind that at no time during the pair of 56 races of this pair, none of the batters rejected one to manipulate the attack. . They hit normally, in other words.
However, the arbitrators have ruled the intentional short term. England added five runs to the total of his first innings as a result, bringing his score to 290.